Below is Chelsea's entry for her Grade 4 Science Project at Norwood's (Massachusetts) Cleveland School in the winter of early 1999 and follows the prescribed format. It was given the highest and the only perfect score by the judges.


The Question
How does temperature affects tire pressure?

My Answer
I think nothing will happen and there is no connection between temperature and tire pressure.

The Independent Variable
The condition that will change is the temperature.

The Dependent Variable
The condition that will be affected by the change is the tire pressure.
The Test
I will measure the tire pressures at different temperatures and check for any changes.


Materials 1) Thermometer
2) Tire pressure gauge
3) Our car's two front tires
4) Paper and pencil
Procedure
On different days and different times, I will measure the temperature using a thermometer. I will then measure the tire pressure of the two front wheels using a tire pressure gauge. I will take the average pressure of the wheels and use this on my graph. To eliminate the effect on tire pressure caused by car usage, I will only measure after the car has been parked for at least four hours.

Tire Pressure Measurements at Different Temperatures
Date
Time
Temperature
Tire Pressure (pounds per square inch)
in Fahrenheit
in Celcius
Left Front
Right Front
Average
20 Feb 1999
8:40 am
34
1.1
37.1
36.9
37.00
20 Feb 1999
11:30 am
39
3.9
37.5
37.3
37.40
21 Feb 1999
8:50 am
30
-1.1
36.8
36.4
36.60
22 Feb 1999
6:30 am
15
-9.4
35.4
35.1
35.25
23 Feb 1999
6:40 am
5
-15.0
34.5
34.3
34.40
28 Feb 1999
9:00 am
25
-3.9
36.3
36.0
36.15
1 Mar 1999
6:30 am
50
10.0
38.6
38.2
38.40

Results and Analysis
When the temperature went from 5 to 50 Fahrenheit, the average tire pressure went from 34.4 to 38.4 psi (pounds per square inch). The graph line is nearly a straight line. On average, the tire pressure increases by 0.0808 psi for every increase of 1 degree Fahrenheit in temperature. It takes an increase of 11.25 degrees Fahrenheit for the tire pressure to increase by 1 psi.


The Conclusion
The temperature has a strong effect on tire pressure as my graph shows. The tire pressure rises and falls with the temperature. Compared to my results, my hypothesis is incorrect.


Below is the result of the California Achievement Test Chelsea has taken in October 1999. The middle graphs show that 99% of the national Grade 4 population has scored lower, meaning Chelsea is in the top 1%.



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